They issued a call for clergy and citizens from across the country to join them. On some occasions King would inaccurately claim that "no pre-arranged agreement existed," but under oath before Judge Johnson, he acknowledged that there had been a "tacit agreement. Collins obtained this guarantee from Sheriff Clark and Al Lingo in exchange for a guarantee that King would follow a precise route drawn up by Clark. Solidarity pickets began circling in front of the White House late into the night. The date had been chosen because Sheriff Clark was out of town, and Chief Baker had stated he would not enforce the injunction. King by the white supremacist in January, black nationalist leader Malcolm X had sent an open telegram to George Lincoln Rockwell , stating:
The teachers retreated after three attempts, and marched to a mass meeting where they were celebrated as heroes by the black community. SNCC had severe reservations about the march, especially when they heard that King would not be present. Clark and Chief Baker were known to spar over jurisdiction. Jackson's father, mother, wife, and children were left with no source of income. The Society of Saint Edmund , an order of Catholics committed to alleviating poverty and promoting civil rights, were the only whites in Selma who openly supported the voting rights campaign. At midday, Judge Thomas, at the Justice Department's urging, issued an injunction that suspended Alabama's current literacy test, ordered Selma to take at least applications per registration day, and guaranteed that all applications received by June 1 would be processed before July. Johnson's decision and the Voting Rights Act[ edit ] On March 15, the president convened a joint session of Congress, outlined his new voting rights bill, and demanded that they pass it. All day as the march approached the city, additional marchers were ferried by bus and car to join the line. King led marchers to the courthouse that morning, Jim Clark began to arrest all registrants in excess of , and corral the rest. King and the executive board of SCLC had not joined it. By evening, several thousand marchers had reached the final campsite at the City of St. They were to ask Governor Wallace to protect black registrants. On March 22 and 23, protesters marched through chilling rain across Lowndes County, camping at three sites in muddy fields. They knew that violating a court order could result in punishment for contempt, even if the order is later reversed. Attempts were made to organize in Lowndes County , but fear of the Klan there was so intense from previous violence and murders that blacks would not support a nonviolent campaign in great number, even after Dr. James Bevel, as director of the Selma voting rights movement for SCLC, called for a march from Selma to Montgomery to talk to Governor George Wallace directly about Jackson's death, and to ask him if he had ordered the State Troopers to turn off the lights and attack the marchers. In addition, hundreds of people were injured or blacklisted by employers due to their participation in the campaign. He did not venture across the border into the unincorporated area of the county, even though the police unexpectedly stood aside to let them enter. State officials had received orders to target Vivian, and a line of Alabama state troopers waited for the marchers at the Perry County courthouse. Supporting them were national figures: President Johnson had avoided such a commitment in sensitivity to the power of the state's rights movement, and attempted to cajole Governor Wallace into protecting the marchers himself, or at least giving the president permission to send troops. Instead of issuing the court order, Federal District Court Judge Frank Minis Johnson issued a restraining order , prohibiting the march from taking place until he could hold additional hearings later in the week. A line of state troopers blocked the door. S District Judge Daniel Thomas issued rules requiring that at least people must be permitted to wait at the courthouse without being arrested. Fearing that Selma's public hospital would refuse to treat Reeb, activists took him to Birmingham's University Hospital, two hours away. James Bevel and C.
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